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    Good to know

    Toronto - a brief overview

    Toronto is one of the most multicultural cities in the world, and its swirl of different flavours plays a large part in shaping the destination’s rich, welcoming character. Its diversity, however, is by no means restricted to its population – sitting pretty on the shores of Lake Ontario, it’s somewhere that balances

    space-age architecture with mellow parkland, hipster bars with high-end boutiques and hushed modern art galleries with clattering food markets. More than two and a half million people call Canada’s largest city home, and it has strong claim to being the country’s cultural heart too.

    Flight and accommodation


    Top 10 sights in Toronto

    Canada, Ontario, Toronto, Lufthansa, Travelguide, Travel Guide

    CN Tower

    301 Front Street W, Ontario
    M5V 2T6 Toronto
    Tel: 416 868 6937
    Show on map

    Opening times:
    Daily 0900-2230

    The city’s most instantly recognisable symbol, it remains a hugely popular visitor attraction. Gaze out at the view from what is still the tallest free-standing structure in the western hemisphere.

    Royal Ontario Museum

    100 Queens Park, Toronto, Ontario
    M5S 2C6 Toronto
    Tel: 416 586 8000
    Show on map

    Opening times:
    Sat-Thurs 1000-1730
    Fri 1000-1830

    A huge, all-encompassing gem of a museum, it focuses mainly on world cultures and natural history, with exhibitions on everything from dinosaurs to Canada’s First Peoples.

    Casa Loma

    1 Austin Terrace, Toronto, Ontario
    M5R 1X8 Toronto
    Tel: 416 923 1171
    Show on map

    Opening times:
    Daily 0930-1700

    Billed as ‘North America’s only castle’, this Gothic Revival-style mansion was built only a century ago by a local financier. The house and gardens remain an enjoyable visitor attraction.

    Ripley’s Aquarium of Canada

    288 Bremner Boulevard, Toronto, Ontario
    M5V 3L9 Toronto
    Tel: 647 351 3474
    Show on map

    Opening times:
    Daily 0900-2300

    Open since late 2013 and occupying a plum downtown location, this is the largest indoor aquarium in Canada with more than 5 million litres of marine and freshwater habitats.

    Toronto Zoo

    2000 Meadowvale Road, Toronto, Ontario
    M1B 5K7 Toronto
    Tel: 416 392 5929
    Show on map

    Opening times:
    Daily 0900-1900 (May-Aug)
    0930-1630 (Nov-Dec)
    Mon-Fri 0930-1630
    Sat-Sun 0930-1800 (Sep-Oct)

    A comprehensive zoo with a substantial conservation programme, it has more than 5,000 animals from various corners of the world.

    Ontario Science Centre

    770 Don Mills Road, Toronto, Ontario
    M3C 1T3 Toronto
    Tel: 416 696 1000
    Show on map

    Opening times:
    Mon-Fri 1000-1600
    Sat-Sun 1000-1700

    Open since the 1960s – and originally one of the world’s first look-and-touch interactive museums – the centre has modernised to offer plenty to the modern visitor.

    Art Gallery of Ontario

    317 Dundas Street W, Toronto, Ontario
    M5T 1G4 Toronto
    Tel: 416 979 6648
    Show on map

    Opening times:
    Tue and Thurs-Sun 1000-1730
    Wed 1000-2030

    Standing behind a strikingly modern facade designed by Frank Gehry, this excellent gallery has a collection of 80,000 works spanning various continents, styles and centuries.

    Hockey Hall of Fame

    30 Yonge Street, Toronto, Ontario
    M5E 1X8 Toronto
    Tel: 416 360 7765
    Show on map

    Opening times:
    Mon-Sat 0930-1800
    Sun 1000-1800 (Jul-Aug)
    Mon-Fri 1000-1700
    Sat 0930-1800
    Sun 1030-1700 (Sep-June)

    A museum and hall of fame in one, this perennially popular attraction details the history of Canada’s favourite sport. It’s heaven for fans, and interesting for those curious about the local passion.

    Bata Shoe Museum

    327 Bloor Street W, Toronto, Ontario
    M5S 1W7 Toronto
    Tel: 416 979 7799
    Show on map

    Opening times:
    Mon-Wed and Fri-Sat 1000-1700
    Thurs 1000-2000
    Sun 1200-1700

    One of Toronto’s – indeed Canada’s – quirkiest attractions, the museum follows the steps of footwear from ancient Egyptian footwear to high-heeled fashion accessories. Its tagline is ‘For the Curious’.

    Canada’s Wonderland

    9580 Jane Street, Vaughan, Ontario
    L6A 1S6 Toronto
    Tel: 905 832 8131
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    Opening times:
    Daily 1000-2200 (late Jun-Aug)

    A summer magnet for families and g-force lovers, this is a large-scale theme park with rides including Leviathan, Vortex, Shockwave and Behemoth. Planet Snoopy is on hand for younger visitors.

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    Good to know

    Country information

    Country overview

    Canada is a rich and diverse travel destination. Enjoy outdoor sports such as skiing, canoeing and sailing alongside museums and theater – this enormous country offers a wide range of activities for every taste and interest. The west of Canada is mainly famous for its breathtaking landscapes, while the east is a blend of European charm and North American bustle.

    The north is the best place for observing wild animals. If solitude is what you seek, the wide-open spaces are the place for you. Most Canadians live in large cities like Vancouver in the west or Quebec, Montreal or Toronto in the east.


    Canada covers the northern part of the North American continent, with the exception of Alaska in the northwest, which is a US state. Greenland is off the coast of Canada in the northeast; to the west is the Pacific Ocean, and to the east the Atlantic. In the south, the 48th parallel forms the border with the USA. After Russia, Canada is the largest country in the world by land mass, but it only has 37 million residents.

    Most of the middle of the country consists of the breadbasket region of the Laurentian Plateau. The Rocky Mountains are to the west, and to the southeast are the Great Lakes, the Saint Lawrence River and Niagara Falls.

    General knowledge

    Key facts

    Population: 37.06 million (2018 estimate)

    Capital: Ottawa


    English and French are the official languages.



    1 Canadian dollar = 100 cents.
    Currency abbreviation: C$, CAD (ISO code). Bank notes come in values of 100, 50, 20, 10, and 5 C$, and coins have face values of 2 and 1 C$, and 50, 25, 10, 5 and 1 cent.


    110 V/120 V, 60 Hz. Two-pronged flat plugs. Adapters are required for European plugs.

    Public holidays

    National holidays between January 2020 and December 2021 are listed below.

    Some provinces of Canada also observe additional holidays.

    * not in all provinces


    New Year’s Day: 1 January 2020
    Good Friday: 10 April 2020
    Victoria Day: 18 May 2020*
    Canada Day (Republic Day): 1 July 2020
    Labor Day: 7 September 2020
    Thanksgiving Day: 12 October 2020*
    Remembrance Day: 11 November 2020*
    Christmas Day: 25 December 2020


    New Year’s Day: 1 January 2021
    Good Friday: 2 April 2021
    Victoria Day: 24 May 2021*
    Canada Day (Republic Day): 1 July 2021
    Labor Day: 6 September 2021
    Thanksgiving Day: 11 October 2021*
    Remembrance Day: 11 November 2021*
    Christmas Day: 25 December 2021

    All information subject to change.

    Flight and accommodation


    Best of West Queen West


    Toronto is not like other major cities. It’s more tolerant, more cosmopolitan and also more friendly; a city in which cultural and ethnic diversity have long become a naturally accepted part of daily life. You get a sense of this in many places – at Wanda’s Pie in the Sky café in the alternative Kensington Market neighborhood, for instance, when your homemade cake is brought to you by a waitress with a full-body tattoo. Or when the – allegedly – famous Peameal Bacon on a Bun is practically forced on you at the Carousel Bakery in the nostalgic St. Lawrence market hall – for free, of course. Or when you’re listening to the sold-out concert of a pretty laid-back cover band at The Drake, your hotel in the hip West Queen West neighborhood, and a local you happen to get talking to asks incredulously: “The Drake’s a hotel that actually rents out rooms?”

    It turns out that he regularly comes here, but not to spend the night: The Drake is a kind of cultural center for West Queen West. And the name “West Queen West” for one of the most interesting corners of Toronto is not a mistaken duplication, by the way: Queen Street West is a very long street, but only its western section – the 15 blocks between Bathurst Street and Gladstone Avenue – is considered hip and vibrant. That’s where a lively art and culture scene has sprung up, with offbeat boutiques and gastronomic establishments of every flavor. “A vibrant scene has found itself a common roof in The Drake Hotel,” is how Canadian food blogger Andrew Dobson explains the phenomenon: “You can spend a whole week in West Queen West without feeling you’re wasting your time.”

    The Drake

    1150 Queen Street West
    ON M6J 1J3
    Show on map

    The Drake Hotel has established itself as a lively mix of local trendy hangout and laid-back urban boutique hotel with just 19 attractive rooms, each with a different decor. For locals, it’s the most important meeting place in the neighborhood thanks to its program of live acts, well-frequented rooftop bar and excellent café on the ground floor. Bonus: Next to the reception desk, there’s a retro passport photo machine that’s a huge hit with Toronto’s partygoers.

    Nota Bene

    180 Queen Street West
    Tel. +1-416/977 6400
    Show on map

    Opening times:
    Mon, 1130–1430,
    Tue/Wed 1130–1430,
    Thu/Fri 1130–1430,
    Sat 1700–2300
    Closed: Sun

    Hip new restaurant serving modern Canadian fare with a good range of vegan and vegetarian options. As you sit in the large and elaborately designed dining room, you can’t help noticing that no expense was spared on the interior designer’s fee. If you’re lucky enough to have Martin from Jena in Germany waiting at your table, you can also look forward to some particularly honest and competent views on the wine list.

    Docs Leather Shop

    726 Queen Street West
    Tel. +1-416/504 8888
    Show on map

    The neighborhood regards Doc as its philosopher and conscience. His two-story mix of motorcycle leathergoods shop, retro memorabilia and photo museum – he snaps anyone wearing a biker vest and hangs the photos on the wall for posterity – is a popular haunt for locals with a particular fascination for all things biking-related.

    Type Books

    883 Queen Street West
    Tel. +1-416/366 8973
    Show on map

    Opening times:
    Mon–Fri 1000–1800
    Sat 1000-1900
    Sun 1100–1800

    At this “brilliant little chocolate box for bibliophiles,” there’s a family atmosphere and a clearly organized, because rigorously curated, selection of books. The store simply wishes not to present its clients with printed trash. So it somehow makes sense that the booksellers themselves also write. Derek McCormack for one has just published a splendid collection of short stories.

    Atomic Design

    965 Queen Street West
    Tel. +1-416/912 2358
    Show on map

    Opening times:
    Tue–Sat 1200–1800
    Sun and Mon only by appointment

    Since 2008, the young designer Lawrence Blairs has been running the colorful, but style-themed furniture design store Atomic Design, which specializes in Canadian contemporary and mid-century design. Available articles include pieces by Ray & Charles Eames, Ingo Maurer and Victor Vasarely.

    The Paper Place

    887 Queen Street West
    Tel. +1-416/703 0089
    Show on map

    Opening times:
    Mon-Wed 1000–1800
    Thu-Fri 1000–2000
    Sat 1000–1800
    Sun 1200–1700

    A temple for paper lovers. This store will even order the favorite material of designers, graphic artists and illustrators is occasionally from Japan, if the customer so wishes. From paper flowers to elegant coffee-table books, this is the place to find the most beautiful paper.

    Harlem Underground

    745 Queen Street West
    Tel. +1-416/368 1920
    Show on map

    Opening times:
    Mon-Thu 1630–2300
    Fri 1630–2400
    Sat 1000–2400
    Sun 1000–2300

    Soul food at this eatery means Afro-American and Afro-Caribbean cuisine with a modern twist. But we wouldn’t be in Toronto if it weren’t also about making a stand: “We want to celebrate the city’s ethnic and cultural diversity.” Our tip: Try the southern fried chicken and waffle …

    The Beaver

    1192 Queen Street West
    Tel. +1-416/537 2768
    Show on map

    Opening times:
    daily 1000–0200

    Extremely laid-back hangout with a carelessly funky decor that since 2006 has earned itself a loyal clientele with regular DJ events and live gigs – lots of drag and burlesque, but also karaoke. Best come lightly dressed because the place is small, so it’s very, very communicative.

    Brodawka & Friends

    1114 Queen Street West
    Tel. +1-416/893 0173
    Show on map

    Opening times:
    Mon-Sat 1100–1900
    Sun 1200-1700

    Before Jeff Brodawka opened his extraordinary shoe boutique in Toronto four years ago, the man with a degree in industrial design worked for John Fluevog in Vancouver. No wonder, then, that his product portfolio is very different from those of “normal” shoe stores. Sometimes garish, sometimes classic, often a little provocative, his shoes all have one thing in common: top handcrafted quality. One of his quotes tells us where his creative inspiration comes from: “When I was in London, seeing my first Paul Smith store was a revelation.”


    967 Queen Street West
    Tel. +1-647/344 4703
    Show on map

    Opening times:
    Tue–Sat 1200–1900
    Sun 1200–1800
    Mon closed

    Aside from designer Angela Phung’s The Store in Queen (719 West Queen West), Fawn, Kasha Bilobram’s original vintage-style boutique, has since 2007 established itself as a prime address for unusual women’s fashion. Fawn is often the first address for Asian and American upcoming labels, such as In God We Trust, Uzi, Markoo, and A Detacher by Polish designer Monika Kowalska.

    Flight and accommodation


    Restaurants in Toronto


    Toronto’s multiculturalism translates into some seriously impressive dining options, whether you’re eating cheap, going upscale or just in search of some home-cooked comfort food.


    188 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario
    M5H 0A3 Toronto
    Show on map

    Price: Expensive

    Set within the Shangri La Hotel, this offers quality fine dining.


    1 Benvenuto Place, Toronto, Ontario
    M4V 1H3 Toronto
    Show on map

    Price: Expensive

    Long one of Toronto’s best, with elegant French cuisine.

    Lisbon by Night

    802 Dundas Street W, Toronto, Ontario
    M6J 1V3 Toronto
    Show on map

    Price: Moderate

    A Portuguese restaurant with an excellent reputation for its seafood.

    Richmond Station

    1 Richmond Street W, Toronto, Ontario
    M5H 3W4 Toronto
    Show on map

    Price: Moderate

    A much acclaimed neighbourhood restaurant with inventive dishes.


    56 Bathurst Street, Toronto, Ontario
    M5V 2P7 Toronto
    Show on map

    Price: Cheap

    A cheese-themed menu makes it a winner with families.

    Flight and accommodation


    Hotels in Toronto


    A city as big and bold as Toronto is always going to have a ready choice of fantastic places to stay – and so it proves.

    Big or boutique, funky or no-frills, deluxe or down-at-home, Toronto’s hotel stock has it all.

    Trump International Hotel & Tower Toronto

    325 Bay St, Toronto, Ontario
    M5H 4G3 Toronto
    Show on map

    Category: Expensive

    This five-star property has more than 250 rooms and is renowned for its service levels.

    Drake Hotel Toronto

    1150 Queen Street W, Toronto, Ontario
    M6J 1J3 Toronto
    Show on map

    Category: Moderate

    A self-proclaimed ‘hotbed for culture’, this is a fun, fresh, stylish choice.

    Stay Inn

    560 Evans Avenue, Toronto, Ontario
    M8W 2W1 Toronto
    Show on map

    Category: Cheap

    An affordable option located reasonably close to the downtown area.

    Flight and accommodation


    Nightlife in Toronto


    If you know where to look, this is a city with a phenomenally eclectic range of nightlife options – and again, the city’s

    international flavours do much to shape the diversity that’s on offer.

    Black Hoof Cocktail Bar

    923 Dundas Street W
    M6J 1W3 Toronto
    Show on map

    Does what the name suggests, and in some style, serving up everything from oak-aged gin martinez to guajillo margarita.

    Indie Alehouse

    2876 Dundas Street W, Toronto, Ontario
    M6P 1Y8 Toronto
    Show on map

    A mecca for craft beer fans, this small-batch brewer has an ever-changing list of beers on tap – there’s food too.


    647 King Street W, Toronto, Ontario
    M5V 1M5 Toronto
    Show on map

    A rooftop patio aimed at a classy, mature crowd – the name stands for ‘Everything for Sale’.

    Uniun Nightclub

    473 Adelaide Street W, Toronto, Ontario
    M5V 1T1 Toronto
    Show on map

    Where to head for a lively house/techno experience, with regular international and local DJs.


    909 Dundas Street W, Toronto, Ontario
    M6J 1V9 Toronto
    Show on map

    A laid-back wine bar, perfect for those who enjoy a decent tipple without dressing to the nines.

    Flight and accommodation


    Calendar of events


    January 31 – February 13, 2020

    Venue: Participating restaurants

    For food fanatics everywhere, Toronto is the place to be in early February and July. Summerlicious, the first two weeks of July, and Winterlicious, the first two weeks of February, are held during the two times of the year when restaurant attendance is typically poor. During the festival, a series of major restaurants across the city offer a limited menu of prix fixe dinners at discounted prices. Lunches usually vary from $15 to $30 while dinners run from $25 to $45 per person.

    Toronto International Dragon Boat Race Festival

    June 21 – 22, 2020

    Venue: Marilyn Bell Park

    Established in 1989, the International Dragon Boat Race Festival is a two-day event that takes place late June in Toronto Centre Island. With over 5,000 athletes on 180 to 200 teams, the race is designed to evoke team spirit and community amongst the players. Teams are not only from Canada, but also come from the US, the Caribbean Islands, Europe, and Asia. During the event, spectators can enjoy booths that display performances by Toronto-based artists of various Caribbean and Latin American cultures.

    Toronto Fringe Theatre Festival

    July 1 – 12, 2020

    Venue: Various venues

    Toronto’s largest theatre and performance festival, this draws 90,000 people over 12 days every year to see more than 155 productions. Events range from dramas to musical extravaganzas to improv and take place in local theatres as well as in unusual spots: playgrounds, parking lots and more. A FringeKids! venue hosts several plays exclusively for children and families. The festival also has a beer tent, two outdoor patios and a free nightly cabaret.

    Beaches International Jazz Festival

    July 3 – 26, 2020

    Venue: Various Toronto beaches

    Jazz musicians from around the world congregate on Toronto’s beaches and lakeside parks for this annual international outdoor festival. Enjoy an eclectic mix of concerts from world-renowned and emerging artists, including swing, dixieland, Latin-inspired tunes and cracking big band performances. A highlight is Streetfest, where Canadian bands entertain the crowds along a 2km (1.2-mile) stretch of Queen Street East.

    Toronto International Film Festival

    September 5 – 15, 2020

    Venue: Various Venues

    The Toronto International Film Festival has become the launching pad for the best of international, Hollywood and Canadian cinema, and is recognised as the most important film festival after Cannes. Celebrities from around the world congregate in the city during September for a sparkling round of premiers, parties and galas. Expect to see the likes of Johnny Depp, Ryan Gosling and Robert De Niro being ushered between film premiers.

    All information subject to change. Please check the dates on the relevant event organizer’s website.

    Flight and accommodation

    Good to know

    Phone calls & Internet

    Country code: +1


    Public telephones are now rare, but a few of them still exist. They are operated with coins, phone cards or credit cards.

    Mobile phone

    CDMA and GSM (800, 850, and 1900 MHz). Not all European mobile phones will work in Canadian networks. Mobile phone coverage can be spotty outside of densely populated areas. The Canadian mobile phone network is organized regionally. Providers include Bell Canada (bell.ca), Telus (telus.com), and Rogers (rogers.com). Renting mobile phones locally, or doing so online in advance of your trip, is cheap and easy.


    There are internet cafés in larger cities, but their numbers are dwindling as more and more cafés and restaurants are offering their guests free Wi-Fi access. Wi-Fi is often available at popular tourist attractions. A map of free Wi-Fi hot spots is available for Montreal from Zap (zapwifipublic.ca).

    Flight and accommodation


    Shopping in Toronto

    Key Areas

    The city’s main shopping drag is Queen Street West, where you’ll find everything from comic-book shops to hot new design boutiques, alongside a whole host of more familiar stores. If haute couture’s your thing, the stylish Bloor-Yorkville neighbourhood is where to head.


    Kensington Market (Kensington Avenue) is a warren of vintage stalls and retro retailers, making it a great bet for one-off finds,

    while a complex of a very different kind – St Lawrence Market (92-95 Front Street East) – is where to come when you’ve worked up an appetite. It’s considered one of the world’s best food markets.

    Shopping Centres

    The inescapable Eaton Centre (220 Yonge Street) is right in the heart of downtown affairs and houses more than 230 retailers. Elsewhere, the vast Yorkdale Shopping Centre (3401 Dufferin Street) is another important mall, playing home to – among others – the famous department store Holt Renfrew.

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    Good to know

    Best time to visit

    Today: Friday, 15.01.2021 03:00 UTC

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    Climate & best time to visit Canada

    If you’re planning on skiing or enjoying winter sports, the best time to visit Canada is between December and April, though some resorts open as early as November and extend their seasons as late as June (or even July on Whistler’s glacier). If you want to enjoy the great outdoors without the snow, travel between May and September. Be aware however, that if there’s been heavy snowfall during the winter, some high-altitude hiking trails may be closed well into July. May, June and September are typically cheaper than July and August, but you’ll get the best of the weather in the latter two months.

    Summer thunderstorms are common throughout Canada. Occasionally, these may become severe. Tornados also occur throughout Canada, with May to September being prime months. The peak season is June and early July in southern Ontario, Alberta, southeastern Quebec, and a band stretching from southern Saskatchewan and Manitoba, through to Thunder Bay. The interior of British Columbia and western New Brunswick are also tornado zones. Earth tremors occur in the western mountains. Forest fires can occur at any time, regardless of the season, particularly in the grasslands and forests of western Canada.


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    absolute maxabsolute minØ absolute maxØ absolute minrelative humidityØ precipitationdays with deposit > 1mmsunshine duration
    Jan16 °C-32 °C-1 °C-7 °C80 %62 mm82.8 h
    Feb13 °C-31 °C0 °C-7 °C79 %57 mm83.9 h
    Mar26 °C-26 °C4 °C-2 °C77 %66 mm94.7 h
    Apr32 °C-15 °C11 °C3 °C70 %67 mm96.0 h
    May34 °C-3 °C17 °C8 °C68 %73 mm87.1 h
    Jun36 °C-2 °C24 °C14 °C70 %63 mm88.5 h
    Jul40 °C3 °C26 °C16 °C69 %81 mm79.1 h
    Aug38 °C4 °C25 °C16 °C73 %67 mm88.3 h
    Sep37 °C-2 °C21 °C12 °C76 %61 mm86.6 h
    Oct30 °C-8 °C15 °C7 °C77 %62 mm84.9 h
    Nov23 °C-20 °C7 °C1 °C81 %67 mm92.7 h
    Dec16 °C-30 °C1 °C-4 °C82 %64 mm102.5 h
    year40 °C-32 °C12 °C4 °C75 %790 mm1005.6 h

    Flight and accommodation

    Good to know

    Visa & Immigration

    IATA Travel Centre

    The IATA Travel Centre delivers accurate passport, visa and health requirement information at a glance. It is a trusted, centralized source for the latest international travel requirements. The IATA Travel Centre is the most accurate source available because it is based on a comprehensive database used by virtually every airline, and information is gathered from official sources worldwide, such as immigration and police authorities.

    IATA Travel CentreIATA Travel Centre

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    Good to know

    Traveller etiquette

    Conduct: Dos and don’ts

    Canadians shake hands to greet each other. In the French-speaking areas of the country, they sometimes greet each other with a light kiss on each cheek (bises). Typical rules of politeness apply when visiting someone’s home. Formal clothing is expected in elegant clubs, restaurants and at the theater.


    Smoking is prohibited in public buildings and restaurants. Some places may have designated smoking areas.


    Service generally is not included in hotel and restaurant bills. A customary tip is 10 to 15 percent of the total bill (before GST/VAT). Taxi drivers also expect about 15 percent. Baggage porters should be tipped 1 C$ per piece of luggage, and hotel staff generally expect a tip of 1-2 C$ per day of your stay when you depart.

    Flight and accommodation

    Good to know


    Main emergency number: 911

    Food & Drink

    Tap water is safe to drink and food safety standards are high. If camping in the backcountry, you should be aware of the risks of giardia, where water in streams or lakes has been contaminated by animal waste. This can cause diarrhoea, vomiting and headaches. Ensure you boil, filter or purify water first; purification tablets are easy to buy in any outdoor equipment store. You should also be aware of the dangers of eating shellfish directly from the sea, which can cause paralytic shellfish poisoning, resulting in illness or death. Check locally before you travel.

    Other Risks

    Summer can bring extremely high temperatures, so you should guard against the problems of heat and sunstroke. Wear sunscreen to prevent sunburn, particularly on days when the widely publicised UV rating is high. (Remember that sunburn can be a risk in winter too, especially if you’re skiing, when the high altitude and reflection from the snow can be a potent combination.) In winter, on the other hand, temperatures can be bitterly cold and frostbite is a real risk; ensure you wear multiple layers and a hat, and cover your face when outdoors.

    Rabies is present in animals. For those at high risk, vaccination before arrival should be considered. If you are bitten, seek medical advice without delay.

    An outbreak of hepatitis A was reported in Vancouver Island in 2011, but most cases have been confined to one cultural group on the island. Vaccination against hepatitis A is not advised unless you’re visiting the outbreak area.

    If walking in tick-infested woodland and brush areas, you should be aware of the risk of Lyme disease. Ensure you cover bare skin (tucking in all clothes), use insect repellent containing DEET and remove any attached ticks using tweezers. The disease is transmitted from the bites of the western blacklegged tick in British Columbia and the blacklegged or deer tick in other parts of Canada. Since 2010, there has been an increased risk in southern Quebec due to newly discovered populations of ticks carrying the bacterium that causes Lyme disease. The first symptom is usually a circular rash, accompanied by fatigue, chills, fever, headache, muscle and joint pain and swollen lymph nodes. You should seek treatment as soon as possible as symptoms can worsen if left untreated, though fatalities are rare.

    Flight and accommodation